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Know the types of malware that exist

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In general, when talking about malware or viruses, if it is encompassing a large number of types of files or malicious software, it is to avoid going into detail when giving news to the public in general about cyber attacks.

Malware is that which aims to access computers to obtain sensitive private information, it is about a person or an organization. El uso de la información tiene muchos fines, ya sea para extorsión, venta or simply cobar un rescuete a cambio.

In the following list, the types of malware that circulate on the network, which can be spread through electronic mail, websites, applications from unreliable developers, flash devices, etc., will be shown.


Computer viruses are malicious programs that infect other files of the operating system with the aim of modifying or damaging them. The infection consists of embedding its malicious code inside the victim’s archive, which is normally executable files, so that from that moment on, the executable file will carry the virus and a new source of infection.


This type of malware is the most common on the Internet, advertising advertising of different products or services. They can include additional code that shows advertising in pop-up windows, o by means of a bar that appears on the screen, simulating a banner that offers different services for the user.

An example of an Adware infection
An example of an Adware infection


There will be programs designed to open a back door in the system, to allow an attacker to have access to the system and do what he wants inside it. The objective is to be able to have a large number of infected computers in order to dispose of the computers freely, until they can form networks like botnets.


This malware is designed for the creation of botnets, which is currently one of the main threats. This type of attacks appeared in 2004, increasing each year the cases of appearance.

It is a network of computers infected by malicious codes, which are controlled by an attacker, having their resources available to work together and distributed. When a computer has been infected by a malware of this type, it is said that it is now a robot or zombie.

A graphic example of a botnet
A graphic example of a botnet


They are a subset of malware. Its difference with viruses is that they do not need a host file to be active. Worms can be reproduced using different means of communication such as local networks, electronic mail, instant messaging programs, P2P networks, USB devices and social networks.

Example of the LoveLetter worm
Example of the LoveLetter worm


It is an electronic mail distributed in a chain format, which aims to make the readers believe that it is something real, when in reality it is a false mail. Unlike other threats such as phishing, hoaxes do not have lucrative ends.


They are responsible for hijacking the functions of the web browser, modifying the start page and search for something in the network of attackers. Block settings to prevent the user from restoring them and, in general, they are part of adware and trojans.


There are programs in charge of storing everything that is entered by the user on the keyboard. Usually installs for trojans to steal passwords and confidential information. Some sophisticated keyloggers include options such as capturing the screen in images or video, as well as capturing the keyboard, sending data electronically, among others. It will be the most used programs in its software form, but there is also dedicated hardware.


Potentially Unwanted Programor in Spanish, a Potentially Unwanted Program, which installs itself with the consent of the user and performs actions that can make the user lose control of their privacy or computer resources.


It is a false program that presents itself as something that is not. This type of malware began to emerge with the proliferation of spyware, as a big business for cybercriminals in the form of fake antispyware. after, they evolved from false Windows optimizers and false antiviruses.

When executing them, they will show some false infection or problem in the system, which can be solved if you have to acquire the payment version, which really results in being a fraud.


They are original programs, such as remote administration tools (RAT), which contain holes used by crackers to perform harmful actions on the computer.


It is a very dangerous type of malware, they are capable of sneaking in, establishing communications with the headquarters, performing detection defenses, among others.

Trying to eliminate them becomes a problem, including every rootkit remover warns that the elimination could cause problems to the operating system, in some cases, making it impossible to start.

This is due to the fact that it is hidden by replacing critical files that are under the control of the rootkit. When these files are replaced, the operating system becomes unusable.


Although technically it is not a virus, it has characteristics to consider it as malware. It is a small program that is hosted inside another application. Its purpose is to pass unnoticed and install in the system when it is executed from the guest archive. After installing, you can perform many tasks that are hidden from the user. Its most common use is for the installation of other malware, such as backdoors, and allowing system access to the creator of the threat.


If it is about spyware, it collects information about a person or organization without their consent or knowledge. The most common objective is to distribute it to advertising companies or any other type of interested organizations. In general, this malware sends information to its servers. They also collect data on the web pages where the victim navigates and the information that is requested in them, as well as IP addresses and URLs that are visited.

Many times the information collected is exploited for marketing purposes, and other times it is from the origin of SPAM, because it serves to send personalized publicity to the user.


It is a malicious code that encrypts the information of the computer equipment and enters into it a series of instructions so that the user can recover their files.

In general, the victim must pay the attacker to obtain a password and thus decrypt his information. This type of attack has spread throughout the world very quickly, the last most popular attack was from WannaCry, which affected millions of computers in more than 150 countries around the world.

Example of Ransomware, screenshot of WannaCry
Example of Ransomware, screenshot of WannaCry

The computer hackers ask the user for a reward that must be paid, in general, with cryptocurrency, specifically Bitcoin, thanks to the degree of anonymity that it provides to the attackers.

The first variant of this type of malware appeared on some web pages, showing a pop-up window with an image of the local police, warning the user that he is being monitored and that he must pay a lot for having visited certain websites.

To avoid being a victim of any malware, it is recommendable to have an antivirus, there are many very good free antivirus software and other paid ones that offer some add-ons.

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Neil Barker
Neil Barker
Hi there! I am Neil Barker, a tech enthusiast who believes in the power of open-source software.


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